Fetus With Hole in Heart

Fetus With Hole in Heart


Contents:


What Are Holes in the Heart Fetus

A healthy heart is anatomically divided by the septum into two parts – the left and right chambers. The right part receives blood with poor oxygen content, the stream is send to the lungs, where the blood is saturated with oxygen and useful substances.

After the lungs, the blood is carried to the left chamber and enters the blood circulation throughout the body. The septum between the left and the right chambers of the heart is necessary to ensure that blood does not mix.

Some patients are diagnosed with a congenital damage of the heart’s septum, namely, a hole in the wall of one of the septums. This is a hole between the heart’s chambers is defined in the cardiology as an Atrial Septal Defect (ASD). If the hole is detected at the bottom of the septum between the left and the right chambers, this pathology is called a Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).
Pathogenesis

In both cases (VSD and ASD), oxygen-rich blood and oxygen-poor blood mix, which is inadmissible. As a result of the pathology development, the lungs may fill up with blood, which will collapse the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

Causes Hole in Heart Fetus

Causes of VSD and ASD. The common reason is a congenital heart defect. This means that the baby inherits this pathology already in the mom’s womb.

Causes of congenital pathology can be as follows:

  • Genetic factors that progressing trigger the septal defect in the baby. The important fact – in this case, one of the parents also has a congenital heart defect.
  • Related genetic disorders such as the Down syndrome and other abnormalities can be detected on the 12th week of pregnancy (for this purpose it is enough to make a blood test for genetic markers).
  • Smoking and drinking alcohol – a baby born from the mother who smoked and consumed alcohol during pregnancy may have a congenital heart defect.

Symptoms Hole in Heart Fetus

The first symptoms of ASD manifest only in adulthood, despite the fact that the disease is congenital in nature. It’s practically impossible to diagnose this pathology in children.

A cardiologist diagnoses the “hole” in the heart according the following symptoms:

  • Abnormal noises in the left and right atrium;
  • Complaints of weakness and fatigue that do not go away even after long periods of rest;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • Increased heart rate;
  • Bluish skin tone;
  • Abnormal swelling of the abdomen and lower limbs;
  • A cerebral accident in the history of the disease.

At the same time, VSD symptoms manifest themselves already in the first year of life. An experienced pediatrician or cardiologist may suspect VSD in the first few days/weeks after the baby is born upon the blueish skin shade, blueish fingers and toes, impaired appetite, edema of the lower torso and limbs, heart murmur.

Diagnostics

fetus hole in heart diagnostics

To confirm or refute the diagnosis of “hole” in the heart, it is necessary to take the following steps:

  • Primary examination by a doctor-cardiologist with a stethoscope (a device able to detect heart murmur in a patient);
  • Obtain the results of an echocardiography;
  • Make an ECG-electrocardiogram;
  • Chest x-ray;
  • Study of the pulse;
  • Study of the heart via catheterization.

Treatment Hole in Heart Fetus

If a baby under one-year-old is diagnosed with an atrial septal defect, the parents will be advised to conduct permanent monitoring at the cardiologist. Babies under 12 months aren’t treated, as there is a possibility that a hole between the right and the left chamber will close by itself without medical intervention.

If the hole hasn’t healed until the baby is 1yo, the parents are given a choice either to perform a surgery or a catherization. The main task of these manipulations is to seal the hole in the heart.

Catheterization

Catheterization is a method of surgery performed under anesthesia: the purpose is to introduce a special catheter in the vein of the groin. Using a catheter, small discs are moved towards the heart septum. Reaching the heart, these disks are pushed toward the hole between the atria. A few months after the surgery, discs are covered with cardiac tissue and the pathology is eliminated.

Surgical Intervention

Under a surgery we understand an operation intended to close the hole between the left and the right heart chambers. A patient is diagnosed with VSD is recommended to regularly attend a cardiologist.

In the absence of any symptoms, the patient need no medical intervention. The only thing: babies with VSD need additional food, well as the use of a special tube for feeding. The pathological increase of the hole between the ventricles requires an open heart surgery.

Precautions

The patient with a “hole” between heart ventricles is recommended to take precautions. First of all, to regularly attend a cardiologist. After the surgery on the heart, the doctor will monitor the healing of the wound during one year. It is not recommended to unnecessarily load the heart muscle by physical exercise.

All you need to do during the rehabilitation period is to rest more, lead a healthy lifestyle, not to be nervous and maintain a stable emotional state.

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