Paternity Test on Fetus
- Paternity Test Fetus
- How to Properly Conduct a DNA Test on the Fetus’s Paternity
- When to Examine the Fetus for Paternity
Paternity Test Fetus
The DNA test is one of the most popular nowadays among all known methods of diagnosis. It can be of several types, each designed to perform a specific function. One gives an opportunity at the early stage to detect or disprove the presence of genetic diseases, the other – to determine the paternity. The latter usually takes place after the birth of the child.
But in connection with different life situations, sometimes a woman needs to do paternity test during pregnancy: This may be a divorce, family conflicts, leaving abroad. The test in this position carries some risk to the mother and fetus, but thanks to the experienced doctors, it is negligible.
A woman has the full right to refuse examination, and in such a case only a court can decide whether there is a need to make the test or not.
How to Properly Conduct a DNA Test on the Fetus’s Paternity
The paternity test lies in comparing the DNA of the fetus and biological material in the form of venous blood of the alleged father. More often at the time of conception 50 % DNA from each biological parent passes to the child. While determining the paternity through DNA testing, it is necessary to examine biological material of the mom, baby and potential father.
To determine the paternity using DNA examination, the first step is to contact a qualified medical facility where the required biological material will be sampled and sent to the lab. Modern laboratories are equipped with the latest advancements in DNA testing, genetic analyzers allow to minimize the possibility of error by a lab assistant, they help ensure the accuracy of DNA tests.
Biological samples obtained in the laboratory are examined using micro-arrays, a large number of different genetic markers is put on them. Data obtained as a result is processed by computer programs that allow to calculate the same markers between the DNA of the fetus, extracted from biological material (chorion or amniotic fluid) and the potential father’s DNA taken from venous blood.
For more reliable results it is better to carry out such examination in the second trimester of pregnancy. It is not desirable to do it in the early stages, because the examined material is the fetal membrane – chorion. Incorrectly conducted analysis at such gestational age can cause problems with the health of the expectant mother or abortion.
The best option for the test is the 20th to 24th week of pregnancy. During this period, for determining of paternity, the amniotic fluid and blood from the umbilical cord of the child are examined. If to make an examination at a later stage, the material will only be an umbilical cord blood, and it means that the analysis will be the most accurate.
When to Examine the Fetus for Paternity
In early pregnancy, there is a certain percentage of the risk of complications, after sampling the fetus membrane. This sample is taken using a thin long needle, catheter. It is to sample the amniotic fluid and villi of the outer membrane of the fetus – chorion.
Second trimester test is the most safe and presents minimum risk to the fetus. It is carried out by the introduction of a long needle through the abdominal wall into the uterus. The biological material is taken by the needle: umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid. All procedures should conduct a qualified specialist. At the time of the analysis, the entire responsibility for the health of the pregnant woman and her baby falls on his shoulders.
It is worth remembering that the longer the duration of pregnancy, thus the risk of complications is reduced to a minimum. If possible, it is better to postpone the procedure at the end of the second trimester or the beginning of the third.
Regardless of how the pregnancy test is conducted, the process is strictly controlled by experienced doctor and ultrasound apparatus that allows to observe the movement of the needle in the abdominal cavity and not cause harm to the fetus.
All tests are performed by the gynecologist in the hospital, and material taken for analysis is examined in a special laboratory. Lab techs compare the obtained samples and determine the possible percentage of paternity. If there is a match of fragments of DNA of the child and the father, the probability that this man is the child’s father is 99,99 %. If they are completely different, the test result is respectively negative, and it means that a man is not a blood relative of the baby. A negative test always has a 100 % accuracy. After the test, doctors for some time observe the health condition of the pregnant woman.
Sometimes there are such curiosities that during sampling of placental membrane of the fetus, biological material of the mom may accidentally be taken. Thus, the test result may be falsely negative. To avoid this for test samples of both parents are taken. Of all the existing tests for paternity, that are allowed to conduct during pregnancy, the DNA test gives maximum truthful results and is the most secure.
Before deciding for examination, a pregnant woman must undergo consultation with her attending doctor. And when her health and that of the child is good, then the doctor may permit the analysis. If there is a risk of miscarriage or complications, do not rush to do the test, it is better to postpone the procedure until the baby is born. It would be safer for him and his mother.
There are situations when the test, for whatever reason, cannot wait until the birth of the baby. Do not be afraid, thanks to experienced professionals and lab techs the procedure of sampling shall be carried out painlessly, quickly and the results are 100 % accurate. The final decision regarding examination takes the biological mother of the child, without her permission the sampling will not be performed.
Vido: Can You Do a Paternity Test While Pregnant?