Tachycardia in Fetus

Tachycardia in Fetus


Tachycardia in Fetus

Fetal tachycardia in a pregnant woman is a pathological condition that is dangerous both for woman and fetus. Let’s take a look at the causes, symptoms, treatments and prognosis of this pathological condition.

Tachycardia is a cardiac arrhythmia, which is characterized by a cardiopalmus greater than the norm. This condition occurs in people of all ages, and in some cases even the fetus in the womb. This pathology is characterized by embryo’s heart contraction within 170-220 beats per minute. The disease can appear due to increased load on the nervous system of a woman, due to constriction of internal organs caused by embryo development or due to changes in hormonal levels.

That is why it is very important to monitor the indicators of the rhythm of the heart during pregnancy. If at rest, there is an increased heartbeat, it reveals sinus rhythm disorder, producing conducting impulses. A pregnant woman is experiencing heart palpitations, but body temperature remains within the normal range. Fetal tachycardia in pregnancy can be sinus or caused by different tachyarrhythmias.

Causes of Tachycardia in Fetus During Pregnancy

The reasons can be both external and internal stimuli and pathologies.

Let’s consider the main reasons:

  • Taking certain medicines;
  • Intrauterine infection in embryo;
  • Intrauterine hypoxia;
  • Anemia in the embryo;
  • Chromosomal anomalies (Trisomy 13, Patau syndrome);
  • Hyperthyroidism and other endocrine disorders;
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • Diseases of the respiratory system;
  • Disturbed water-electrolytic balance due to toxicity;
  • An unbalanced diet, lack of vitamins and nutrients.

Fetal tachycardia can be caused by maternal blood loss or taking drugs.

The reasons which relate directly to the embryo developing in the womb, are:

  • Intrauterine infection or hypoxia.
  • Anemia.
  • Chromosomal anomalies.

The main causes of sinus tachycardia in the fetus during pregnancy:

  • Increased load on the heart due to the blood flow of the embryo.
  • Diseases of the circulatory system and heart squeeze.
  • Enhanced metabolism, and fetal development.

According to medical opinion, light, supraventricular tachyarrhythmia during pregnancy is normal. Attacks of increased heartbeat can occur unexpectedly and suddenly disappear. The challenge for a woman is to remain calm and not worry about the increasing activity of the cardiovascular system.

Do not forget that the heart of a woman is running for two, so your heart rate becomes more intensive. Expressed sinus tachycardia occurs in the last trimester of pregnancy when the embryo is practically formed. Heart palpitations are due to intense gas exchange in the fetus.

In order to diagnose tachyarrhythmia in the fetus, there is a need to conduct an echocardiogram, an ultrasound, and radiographic study. Usually, the heart beat of the baby goes back to normal during the first year of life. If heart palpitations remain, the child undergoes transplacental introduction of antiarrhythmic drugs.

Signs of Fetal Tachycardia During Pregnancy

Signs of Fetal Tachycardia

Signs of this disease appear as increased heartbeat in a woman. An increased heartbeat means the rhythm of more than 120 beats per minute in a woman, the embryo’s heart rate reaches 170-220 blows. Tachyarrhythmia may indicate early stages of hypoxia, i.e. oxygen starvation of the organism.

  • One of the primary forms is atrial ectopic tachycardia. Pathological pockets appear in the atrium or зulmonary veins. Usually, the main symptom is nausea and cardiovascular disorders.
  • Pathology may be accompanied by lengthy accesses and have a regular nature. Therefore, a pregnant woman should minimize physical activity and stress. With the first signs you need to relax, but still, seek medical help.
  • Sinus tachycardia in the fetus during pregnancy is considered a separate disease. That is a clinical symptom which indicates a problem in the body, mainly in the heart. Ignoring the increased heart rate can cause a child’s heart defect.

If pathology caused by disorders in the functioning of the heart, a pregnant woman should take sedatives and medicines that saturate the body with catalytic ions of phosphorus, potassium or calcium.

In the absence of proper treatment, the disease leads to anxiety, disorders of sleep and weakening of the protective properties of the immune system and the body. Another symptom of tachycardia in pregnancy is numbness of different body parts, chest pain, anxiety. In some cases – a sharp decline of energy and weakness can also be symptoms of tachyarrhythmia.

Diagnosis of Fetal Tachycardia in Pregnancy

Diagnosis of Fetal Tachycardia

Diagnosis of fetal tachycardia in pregnancy is carried out if there are signs of the disease. To detect violations of heart rhythm at the kid, doctors use ultrasound, electrocardiography, and radiographic diagnosis. Ultrasound is necessary to detect defects and complications in fetal development, for example, dropsy.

To identify tachycardia, doctors conduct Doppler study, as this is the best method for the analysis of the status of the embryo. The study allows to estimate atrial and ventricular contractions and reveal the movement of blood in the heart. Differential diagnosis based on several types of fetal tachyarrhythmia is also necessary.

Atrial Flutter

With this form of pathology, the heart beat rate is about 400 per minute. This heartbeat is a regular character and is associated with the atrioventriсular block. With other types of illness, the atrial rhythm of the embryo is irregular, while the frequency of heart beats can range from 180 to 250 beats per minute.

Supraventricular Reciprocal Tachycardia

Occurs because of the auricular premature contractions in the fetus. Most often, this condition is diagnosed at 24-33 week of pregnancy. If supraventricular reciprocal tachycardia does not pass to the sinus rhythm, the heartbeat of the fetus comes back to normal. If this form flows simultaneously with bradycardia, the embryo has an elongated QT syndrome, and in some cases, inflammatory pockets are detected.

Ectopic Tachycardia

It is formed in different atrium sections, is most likely to occur in the lateral wall of the atrium, on the right or in its appendage. The pathology is accompanied by a focus of activity of triggered tachycardia, which is located outside the node. Atrioventricular node is passive. This condition may occur in the case of atrial chaotic tachyarrhythmia or ventricular tachycardia.

Treatment of Tachycardia in the Fetus During Pregnancy

The treatment of tachycardia in the fetus during pregnancy depends on the pathological condition, pregnancy period, and other characteristics of the mother and the unborn child. In most cases the pathology is not permanent in nature, therefore, does not require special treatment. In the case of the fickle nature of the pathology, the doctor prescribes to monitor the status of women and the embryo. This means that heart rate should be measured in a hospital or at home using a hand-held Doppler monitor. Measurements should be carried out twice a day.

If the tachyarrhythmia is complicated by a cardiac valve or heart muscle dysfunction, a woman should take a number of medications to smooth the heart rate of the fetus. Please note that it is prohibited to take such drugs without prescription because they can produce excessive stress on the baby’s heart and cause his death. Treatment depends entirely on the form of pathology, let’s consider the basic types of tachycardia and treatment methods.

  • For the treatment of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, magnesium products, propranolol, and lidocaine are used. Medicines are injected intravenously or taken orally.
  • In the case of ventricular tachycardia, due to long QT syndrome, the treatment is carried out only in a hospital and with extreme caution. This is because some medications contribute to the lengthening of the interval, what causes arrhythmia.
  • If fetal tachycardia is accompanied by heartbeat rate of over 220 per minute, a doctor prescribe Sotalol or Amiodarone. Flecainide should be used with the utmost care because in the case of ventricular dysfunction it can cause cardiac failure and death of the embryo.
  • When myocarditis is suspected, the doctor prescribes the course of Dexamethasone in order to treat a fast heartbeat. The treatment lasts from 7 to 14 days.

Video: Fetal Echocardiograph, Common Fetal Arrhythmias